The world economy develops rapidly creating production facilities and extending manufacturing sites. Since the start of the Industrial Revolution, people have used natural resources carelessly discharging waste into the biosphere. Nowadays, global society experiences sustainable development and faces issues caused by previous actions of human beings. Pollution of air, water, and soil is constantly increasing and may cause harm to the health of future generations; therefore, humanity should take effective measures to improve the situation.
Pollutants of the biosphere are chemicals discharged in large quantities. For example, a certain quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere – a major cause of the greenhouse effect – is necessary to warm the planet. The same concerns phosphates as they are necessary for aquatic life. Human activities have led to the opposite result – the high concentration of this chemical in the air causes climate changes. In fact, all parts of the biosphere are interconnected, and when human activities affect, for instance, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere is affected as well. The changes in the hydrosphere result in melting glaciers and a decrease in the number of aquatic species. Every natural process is cyclical, and the disruption of one element leads to inevitable changes in the whole system.
Air pollution is one of the primary concerns in the world. By-products of the manufacturing process are dumped into the air, and then humans breathe them into their lungs. Despite alternative energy sources, people still rely heavily on fossils for energy generation. Vehicle emissions are one of the major causes of environmental pollution and negative influence on human health. Poor outdoor air quality has a negative effect on indoor air as well. Among the main outdoor air pollutants are nitrogen oxide, trioxide, carbon oxide, and particulate matter (PM) composed of different particles. Urban design can be one of the ways to lessen the concentration of chemicals in the air as high-rise buildings can block air flow.
Another problem that society faces nowadays is water pollution. Enterprises dump harmful chemicals into lakes, rivers, and oceans. According to World Health Organization, one-sixth of the world population does not have access to clean water. Moreover, it influences the quality of crops that grow on land irrigated with polluted water. The effects of water pollution are considered to be the major cause of human death across the globe. More than fifty countries of the world suffer from the lack of clean drinking water.
Land pollution has become an urgent problem in recent years. Millions of tons of garbage and other types of solid waste are produced every year. They penetrate the ground where crops absorb them. Some waste does not decompose and may lie on the ground for many years.
Environmental pollution is harmful to human health, first of all. In the United States, researchers have linked environmental exposures to infectious diseases, cancer, birth defects, asthma, and many others. They have proved that the high level of infant mortality is caused by air pollution. Wildlife also suffers from chemicals in drinking water, acid rains, oil spills, etc (Peirce et al., 1998). It is critical nowadays to implement standards of environmental protection and educate people on how they can save the world around them. Global society and local authorities need to take joint actions to maintain the ecological balance and mitigate negative effects.
To summarize, environmental pollution affects all elements of the biosphere. Increased economic activity and uncontrolled waste disposal are the core reasons for this process. Air, water, and soil pollution are detrimental to human health, causing a variety of diseases. It is highly important to take effective actions to slow destructive processes, control enterprises, and protect the planet for future generations.
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