The Meaning of Global Citizenship
The notion “Global Citizenship” has become enormously widespread and common throughout the latest decades. The main reason for this is the shift in the minds of different people around the world regarding their self-identification bound to the global community but not to the community of a particular country. Despite the fact that this notion does not avoid the meaning of specific patriotic aspects, it clearly puts them in the second place after values similar to the cosmopolitan ones. Thus, people identifying themselves as global citizens describe their feelings about this aspect as a connection to the global community of the world without the strict presence of personal connection. Similarly, the groups sharing and spreading the identified views describe a global citizen as someone who identifies with being part of an emerging world community and whose actions contribute to building this community’s values and practices. Consequently, global citizens aspire to specific values and cultural practices, which unite them more as inhabitants of the planet rather than those, who represent a particular nation.
Without a doubt, the views of global citizenship represent not only a domain of culture and social life but also politics, economy, international relations, and others. One of the most significant examples, which drive the global community towards unification, is a formation of various international economic and political unions similar to the European Union (EU). This example shows that it is possible to unite human and financial resources, economic power, cultural heritage and freedoms of different nations without threatening the principles of democracy and national security. Moreover, the practices of free movement of human and trade resources, cultural interchange and share of scientific knowledge within the borders of the EU demonstrate the efficacy of global citizenship in a wider perspective. Therefore, in case the whole world becomes a place for global citizens, one expects that people of the world would have more possibilities for a peaceful and safe life.
Unemployment: Causes and Policies
Unemployment is the situation when certain individuals search for a workplace or have no work. One of the important analytical aspects in this sense is the unemployment ratio, which is calculated by means of division of the number of unemployed people to the quantity of working ones. Unemployment associated with economic processes negatively affects the countries and citizens in particular. For instance, studies reveal that unemployment has a direct effect on the deterioration of subjective well-being. Besides, the local unemployment causes a decline in the household income of employed individuals. Therefore, different specialists investigate the causes of unemployment while politicians introduce a wide range of policies combating the issue.
There are different theories regarding unemployment, which classify its causes and suggest different solutions addressing the problem. For instance, there is an opinion that rapid economic growth leads to higher rates of unemployment is countries such as France. Moreover, modern realities demonstrate that a wide automation at industrial facilities leads to the increase of unemployment. One of the claims explaining the issue is, robots coming over here and taking our jobs. As a result, the studies of the causes of unemployment result in the exposal of the factors, which can be mitigated and lead to its reduction. One of the common policies generating the increase of employment rate is the acceleration of the economic growth of the countries. The reason for this is that lower demand for goods and services lead to less need in the workforce, which directly increases the unemployment ratio. As a result, politicians and economists attempt to change the conditions in the countries to assure the existence of positive economic growth.
The Factors which Drive Globalization
Globalization is a complex process, which involves a wide range of factors leading to its formation and acceleration. Among them are cultural, economic, political, and other changes. It should be mentioned that one of the factors causing this process is the change of the mind patterns of people. For example, in the past, people were more attached to the home and travelled less. Nowadays, people are attached to the digital world which opens other countries and cultures to them. The Internet is one of the factors which has changed the patterns of thinking as people can work remotely and consume goods from almost any place in the world. Consequently, people of different countries and cultures have started feeling a closer connection to other cultures and has been gradually forming a new concept, which is called ‘global citizenship.’ At the same time, other factors influence this shift and boost the process of formation of a global community. Among these factors are reduction and removal of trade barriers, a growth of the Internet usage, growth of multinational corporations, and the development of trade blocs. Owing to this, people have gained positive experience of the free trade, ad-free share of resources, knowledge, goods, and services. As a result, the countries, which are the part of trade blocs, support the tendencies of globalization because of the perspectives of accumulating the wealth. Therefore, the developed countries have a primary interest in globalization because it strengthens their political influence, economic stability, growth, and the well-being of their citizens.
Multinationals and their Role in the Global Economy
The recent years clearly demonstrate that multinational corporations (MNCs) are constantly growing and obtaining more and more economic power. An MNC is a company, which owns production facilities in at least one country outside its home state. This growth leads to the fact that more and more countries collaborate not by the means of cultural or political connection but economic bonds of multinationals. For example, Coca Cola’s offices worldwide lead to the fact that its employees are connected by the economic power of this brand, internal policies, and the principles of the company corporate culture. As a result, its employees from Spain, the UK, the US and other countries share similar views regarding the aim of their work and even some life values. This connection may weaken their cultural links with their home countries putting them in an undermining position towards the global interests of their MNC employer.
Furthermore, MNCs are often economically stronger and more powerful than the local competing companies and private entrepreneurs of the countries they operate. This power comes from the greater financial capital, reduced transport and communication costs as well as the establishment of the production lines in the countries with a cheap labor force. Therefore, MNCs tend to increase the economic influence in the world increasing the global impact of their corporate culture and brands. Another effect of their work is the creation of a shared pool of similar products widely accessed in any country. As a result, people get used to the fact that they can buy the products they want in any country, which may reduce the individual perception of the cultural differences and increase the profits of MNCs. Consequently, MNCs gain significant economic power in different countries by the means of creation of loyalty towards their products reducing the costs of their production and distribution and driving smaller competitors off the markets.
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