Descartes uses the concept of dualism to explain the distinction between mind and body. He argues that it is possible for the former to exist without the latter and vice versa due to the imminent differences in their nature. According to Descartes, body, on the one hand, is a physical material object that can be divided into its parts such as the eyes, the head and the hands. On the other hand, the mind is an immaterial thing. Even though these are two separate entities, they still interact. Human beings have senses which are key in creating the real and fanciful images in their minds some of which are totally misleading. However, it is still difficult to doubt things that come from senses, especially those that relate to common activities like holding a piece of paper or writing. The concept of monism, in its turn, is of the philosophical view that one single reality can be explained through a combination of existing things. Thus, according to Darwin, the origin of species can be attributed to the theory of natural selection and no other outside sources like deities. This paper argues that Cartesian dualism offers a more rational explanation of reality than Darwinian monism.
According to Descartes, on the one hand, senses cannot always be trusted since the mind and body are separate entities. However, the fact that human beings can think about their existence and even look for convincing answers proves that they have an independent object in their body which could be the mind or the soul. Descartes has for a long time been sure that he can credit his existence to an all-powerful God. However, he does not understand why he is on many occasions deceived by his senses. According to Thomas Aquinas, some things in the world are in constant motion. However, for something to move, something else which was set in motion by another one has to set it in motion. Thus, God was the first mover who set everything else in motion. Many people believe in the existence of God and most of the time they cannot help imagining what He may be like even though He does not exist in any form. Thus, the thoughts are created independently by the mind. And the interaction between the mind and the body is what leads to the development of literature sources about the nature of God.
On the other hand, the Darwinian monism concept is of the view that the origin of species can be linked to a single factor that is the theory of natural selection. The existence of various living beings on earth is credited to their survival rates which translate to the transfer of favorable genes from generation to generation and their improvement with each subsequent transfer. According to Darwin, the changes in life conditions increase the number of variations. This improves the chances of developing profitable variations that enhance survival rates among species. From this view, one can say that the mind and the body are a single entity, since they evolve as a unit rather than as individual objects. If variability favors brain enhancement, then the better brain cells will be passed on to the next generation meaning that the thinking capacity will be improved. This is not entirely true since the mind and the body are separate entities. With or without the enhanced brain cells, human beings still have the ability to see things and interpret them on their own. Darwin also mentions that people’s acts have always been produced by methodical and unconscious means of selection. However, according to Descartes, the actions of people are guided by the images of them which they already created in their minds based on their thoughts. Thus, human beings are not entirely controlled by nature since they can reason with their minds and make the best decisions for their own good and the good of the next generations.
The concepts of dualism and monism are different in their understanding of the mind and the body either as separate entities or a unified whole. The concept of Cartesian dualism is more logical since the mind plays a great role in guiding the acts of the body. Thus, even though these two entities are separated, they work in a coordinated manner. The concept of natural selection, in its turn, leaves more questions than answers. For instance, it is unknown how the first being from which all others have evolved appeared. Cartesian dualism answers this question by crediting it to an all-powerful force which was the first mover.
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